www.uggbootsoncheap.comGeneral Motors Co., maker with the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid that is the subject of a federal security probe, is moving to the less volatile battery chemistry for its Chevy Spark electric car heading on sale in 2013.GM is making use of phosphate-based lithium ion batteries from Waltham, Massachusetts-based A123 Systems Inc. that are much less likely to burn than other lithium chemistry, including that used inside the Volt model introduced final yr, the battery maker mentioned. The shift in less than two a long time highlights how quickly the technology is changing for electric and hybrid cars.
UGG Kensington Boots Online GM and other businesses are engineering future models with lithium phosphate technology partly since the batteries may be safer and last longer, stated James Hall, principal of consulting company 2953 Analytics Inc. in Birmingham, Michigan. Battery makers werent ready to mass-produce them until recently.Lithium phosphate chemistry looks like it could possibly be a lot more friendly in terms of heat management, Hall stated. But it stores less power. There is a tremendous amount of new discovery. This really is new territory for lithium batteries.The Volt, which uses diverse technology, is becoming investigated following three batteries caught fire because May following authorities crash tests. The National Highway Traffic Security Administrations probe isnt centered on battery cell chemistry, mentioned Randy Fox, a spokesman for Detroit-based GM.
cheap UGG Montclair BootsThe probe is focused on pack design and any fix would likely involve the pack, he mentioned within a telephone job interview.GM chose A123s battery for that Spark based on their performance to our packaging, performance, quality, expense and security requirements, Fox later said in an e-mail. We did not select A123 solely on its battery chemistry.The automaker announced the deal with A123 in October, about 4 months after the first Volt battery caught fire. A123 had placed a bid to supply batteries for the Volt, losing out to South Koreas LG Chem Ltd., mentioned Andy Chu, vice president of marketing for A123.When GM and Nissan Motor Co. had been using bids for batteries for the Volt and Leaf years ago, suppliers didnt have proven creation for lithium phosphate technology. GM, Nissan and Palo, Alto, California-based Tesla Motors Inc. instead chose batteries with lithium metal oxide technology.Now suppliers are ready, and carmakers are moving to lithium phosphate, mentioned Jay Whitacre, assistant professor in materials science at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Trade-OffsThere are trade-offs between the two technologies. Although no lithium ion batteries are fireproof, lithium metal oxide batteries can catch fire much more easily, Whitacre stated. When they get as well hot, the ceramic structure that holds the oxygen releases it. That oxygen can feed a blaze, Whitacre said.All lithium ion batteries can catch fire simply because they have flammable electrolytes inside the pack, he stated.
Ugg Classic Cardy saleNHTSA started its investigation right after a Volt caught fire 3 weeks following a side-impact crash test Might 12 even though parked at a testing center in Wisconsin. Volt battery packs had been damaged in 3 more tests in November, causing two fires, NHTSA said Nov. 25. NHTSA isnt investigating Nissans Leaf or Teslas Roadster.No GuaranteesManufacturing quality, as nicely because the design in the cells as well as the pack that bundles them, play a big role in determining how safe batteries are, said Menahem Anderman, founder and president of Total Battery Consulting Inc., in Oregon House, California. There is no guarantee that any lithium ion batteries will be completely safe, Anderman said inside a phone job interview.With phosphate, its more hard to get a fire to spread from cell to cell, said Robert Kanode, CEO of Valence Technology Inc., a lithium phosphate battery maker in Austin, Texas.The trade-off is that lithium phosphate batteries store much less power and would must be bigger, Kanode said. Carmakers can get much more range or better acceleration utilizing batteries like the Volts lithium manganese battery.
Ugg Classic TallThats one reason why Valance has focused on commercial applications like United Parcel Service Inc. delivery trucks and double-decker buses in London, Kanode said. Its easier to bundle larger lithium phosphate batteries in individuals vehicles, he mentioned. If Valence made a battery for that Volt, it will be as considerably as ten % larger than LG Chems battery pack.In addition to the Spark, Fisker Automotive Inc. will use lithium phosphate batteries for its Karma sports car. Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is buying lithium phosphate batteries from A123 for its ActiveHybrid 5 and ActiveHybrid three models, the first of which goes on sale in March, A123s Chu stated.